Problem C: Ideas
A unique feature of ideas is that they are not consumed when used. A
good idea can benefit arbitrarily many people without diminishing the
value of the idea. An idea can even serve as the basis for creative
people to derive even better ideas. Each person relies on a specific
set of ideas to build on and create new ideas.
In order to realize these benefits, ideas need to be communicated to
the people who use them. People have developed an extensive worldwide
communication network to satisfy this need. The network is composed
of a series of tubes connecting people. The tubes are inhabited by
curious creatures called packets which carry ideas from one person to
another. In order to avoid collisions between packets, the tubes are all
unidirectional. Each person can have zero or more incoming and zero or
more outgoing tubes.
All of the packets start at the same person, and each packet follows
the following algorithm:
- Learn and remember the ideas created by the current person.
- If there are no outgoing tubes from the current person, stop
executing the algorithm.
- Otherwise, choose an arbitrary outgoing tube and use it to
travel to a new person.
- Tell the new person all of the ideas that he or she needs from
- Go back to step 1.
The input data is such that it is possible for a packet to reach
every person from person 0, and whenever a person P relies on a given
idea, every path a packet could have taken to reach P will have
visited at least one person who created that idea. It is possible
for more than one person to independently create the same idea.
To ease the strain on each packet, you would like to minimize the number
of ideas that it remembers at any given time by directing the
packet to forget certain ideas in certain tubes. However, in so doing,
you must ensure that no matter what path the packet takes, every time it
visits a person, the packet knows all of the ideas that the person needs.
The first line of input contains a single integer, the number of test
cases to follow. Each test case begins with a line containing three
integers N, M, I, the number of people, tubes, and ideas,
respectively. Each of these integers is between 1 and one thousand,
inclusive. People are numbered from 0 to N-1, ideas from 0 to I-1.
All of the packets start at person 0.
2N lines follow, two lines for each person in order from 0 to N-1.
Each of these lines contains some number of integers separated by spaces.
For each person, the first line lists the ideas that the person
needs, and the second line lists the ideas that the person creates.
A given idea will never appear on both lines for the same person.
M more lines follow, each describing a tube using two integers:
the source and destination person of the tube.
3 3 2
For each test case, output M lines, each corresponding to one
of the tubes in the same order as in the input. For each tube,
output a list of integers: the minimal set of ideas the
packet must have in its memory when travelling through the
given tube. Output the ideas in each set in increasing order.
Output for Sample Input